No 49 - Journal of Water and Land Development

Open Access
Open Access
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Go to content
Open Access
Volume 49 (2021): Issue 2
1
Monitoring of horizontal displacements and changes of the riverine area of the Dniester River
Shevchuk V., Burshtynska K., Korolik I., Halochkin M.

Key words: channel processes, Dniester River, monitoring, riverbed displacements, riverine areas, satellite images, supervised classification, topographic maps  
For citation: Shevchuk V., Burshtynska K., Korolik I., Halochkin M. 2021. Monitoring of horizontal displacements and changes of the riverine area of the Dniester River. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 1–15. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137091.


Abstract
The article discusses the monitoring of horizontal displacements of the channel of Dniester, the second largest river in Ukraine, based on topographic maps, satellite images, as well as geological, soil and quaternary sediment maps. Data processing has been carried out using the geographic information system ArcGIS. The monitoring over a 140-year period (1874–2015) has been performed at the river’s transition from a mountainous to plain terrain on the 67 km section of the river. During this period, maximum displacements in the study area were 590–620 m. The research examines water protection zones needed for channel displacements. The article describes the monitoring methodology and analyses changes over a period of 18 years (2000–2018). The analysis includes the anthropogenic influence on the channel in the monitoring area. Results of the research may be useful for construction and cadastral works related to the channel in the area concerned, as well as for water management.
2
Waterlogging tolerance: A review on regulative morpho-physiological homeostasis of crop plants
Sharma S., Sharma J., Soni V., Kalaji H.M., Elsheery N.I.

Key words: antioxidants, cellular metabolites, climate change, photosynthesis, waterlogging  
For citation: Sharma S., Sharma J., Soni V., Kalaji H.M., Elsheery N.I. 2021. Waterlogging tolerance: A review on regulative morphophysiological homeostasis of crop plants. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 16–28. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137092.


Abstract
The natural environment is being drastically affected by climate change. Under these severe environmental conditions, the growth and productivity of agricultural crops have reduced. Due to unpredictable rainfall, crops growing in the field are often exposed to waterlogging. This leads to significant crop damage and production losses. In this review paper, the morphological and physiological adaptations such as development of aerenchyma, adventitious roots, radial root oxygen loss barrier, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of crops under waterlogging are discussed. This will help to understand the effects of waterlogging on various crops and their adaptation that promotes crop growth and productivity. To meet the food requirements of a growing population, the development of waterlogging tolerant crops by screening and plant breeding methods is necessary for plant breeders. Better knowledge of physiological mechanisms in response to waterlogging will facilitate the development of techniques and methods to improve tolerance in crops.
3
Comparative assessment of Al2O3-modified biomasses from agricultural residues for nickel and cadmium removal
Herrera-Barros A., Tejada-Tovar C., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D.

Key words: adsorption, agricultural residues, alumina nanoparticles, cellulose, heavy metal ions
For citation: Herrera-Barros A., Tejada-Tovar C., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D. 2021. Comparative assessment of Al2O3-modified biomasses from agricultural residues for nickel and cadmium removal. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 29–34. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137093.


Abstract
The biodiversity of aqueous environments has been affected due to the disposal of wastewater highly contaminated with heavy metal ions, causing much damage to ecosystems. These pollutants are very toxic and bioaccumulate in living organisms. This work attempts to evaluate the adsorption of nickel ad cadmium ions using three biomasses from agricultural residues (corn cob – CC, orange peel – OP, and oil palm bagasse – PB) modified with alumina nanoparticles. The biomasses were characterized via compositional analysis and a point of zero charges to quantify the presence of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and the feasible pH, taking advantage of the biomass charge. After modification with Al2O3 nanoparticles. The resulting adsorbents were characterized via FT-IR analysis to identify the functional groups that most contributed to the adsorption performance. Furthermore, the influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles was analysed on the adsorption capacities of the evaluated biomasses using batch systems at a temperature of 25°C and pH 6. All biomasses displayed a high content of cellulose, estimating a weight percentage of about 19.9%, 14.3%, and 13.1% for PB, OP, and CC samples, respectively. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups, which contribute to enhancing the adsorption capacities of the modified biomasses. Functional adsorption capacity was observed for all biomasses after modification with Al2O3 nanoparticles, achieving at pH 6.0 a cadmium removal from 92% (CC-Al2O3 and PB-Al2O3) up to 95.8±0.3% (OP-Al2O3). In nickel ions, it was estimated a broader adsorption capacity at pH 6.0 of about 86±0.4% after using the CC-Al2O3 sample, 88±0.1% for the PB-Al2O3 adsorbent, and 98±0.2% for the OP-Al2O3 sample, confirming the suitability of these Al2O3-modified biomasses for the removal of heavy metal ions.
4
Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using the DRASTIC model: A case study of Quaternary catchment A21C, Limpopo River Basin, South Africa
Moges S.S., Dinka M.O.

Key words: A21C Quaternary catchment, DRASTIC model, groundwater vulnerability, sensitivity analysis, South Africa
For citation: Moges S.S., Dinka M.O. 2021. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using the DRASTIC model: A case study of Quaternary catchment A21C, Limpopo River Basin, South Africa. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 35–46. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137094.


Abstract
Groundwater is a vital resource for domestic, agricultural, industrial activities and ecosystem services. Despite its multiple purposes, the resource is under significant threat owing to increasing contamination from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Hence, in order to ensure the reliability and sustainable use of groundwater for the present and future generations, effective management of groundwater (quality and quantity) is highly important. This can be achieved by identifying areas more vulnerable to contamination and implementing protective measures. The present study aims at assessing the vulnerability of groundwater using GIS-based DRASTIC index in the Quaternary catchment (A21C) within Limpopo River Basin. The vulnerability index varied from 87 to 207. About 53.6% (408 km2) of the catchment area also exhibited high risk of groundwater contamination mostly in central, north-eastern and western part of the sub-catchment. The medium and low vulnerability classes cover only 18.1% (137.5 km2) and 21.7% (165.1 km2) of the study area, respectively. The shallow groundwater at the Doornfontein Campus belongs to very high vulnerability area. The sensitivity analysis indicates that depth to water level, recharge, aquifer media, soil and topography are the important contributors to vulnerability assessment. The correlation analysis performed to validate the final vulnerability map shows a moderate positive correlation, indicating the model’s applicability to the urbanised environment. The study indicates an area that is highly vulnerable to pollution, and hence protective measures are necessary for sustainable management of the groundwater resource in the study area. The result of this study can also be further improved and verified by using other vulnerability assessment models.
5
Soil erosion control in immature oil palm plantation
Satriawan H., Fuady Z., Fitri R.

Key words: cover crops, erosion, nutrient leaching, oil palm plantation, sediment trap, surface runoff, terraces
For citation: Satriawan H., Fuady Z., Fitri R. 2021. Soil erosion control in immature oil palm plantation. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 47–54. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137095.


Abstract
The objectives of developing oil palm plantations should feasible economically and without causing massive erosion. This research proposes soil and water conservation strategies that are ideal and optimal for oil palm cultivation depending on land capability class. The conservation test for plants was performed according to land capability classes on a plot measuring 22 m × 4 m. Runoff and erosion rates were measured using Multislot Divisor Method. Nutrient leaching was analysed based on the content of C-organic (Ctot) (Walkley–Black method), total nitrogen (Ntot) (Kjeldahl method), P-available (Bray-1
method) and K2O (extraction with 1N NH4OAc at pH 7.0). From the results, land capability class III, cover crops (soybean) + manure (P3) treatment effectively reduced runoff and soil erosion (22.63 m3∙ha–1∙y–1 and 13.04 Mg∙ha–1∙y–1), as well as nutrient leaching, compared to other treatments. Furthermore, sediment trap + cover crop + manure (P3) controlled runoff, erosion and nutrient leaching on land capability class IV, producing the lowest runoff (129.40 m3∙ha–1∙y–1), soil erosion (11.39 Mg∙ha–1∙y–1), C-organic (1.3%), and P (1.95 mg kg–1). Soil conservation treatment significantly reduced erosion and runoff (p < 0.05) on land capability class VI. The bench terrace + cover plants + manure treatment-controlled runoff, erosion, and soil nutrient leaching.
6
Effect of magnetic fields and fertilizers on grass and onion growth on technogenic soils
Vasilyeva M., Kovshov S., Zambrano J., Zhemchuzhnikov M.

Key words: alternating magnetic field, biochar, bioefficiency, biohumus, constant magnetic field, fertilization, physiological parameters of plants, technogenic soil
For citation: Vasilyeva M., Kovshov S., Zambrano J., Zhemchuzhnikov M. 2021. Effect of magnetic fields and fertilizers on grass and onion growth on technogenic soils. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 55–62. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137096.


Abstract
The article deals with effect the use of organic (biohumus) and mineral (biochar) fertilizers based on the products of chicken vital activity on changing the fertility of technogenic sod-podzolic soils exposed to constant and unstable magnetic fields. The germination and growth dynamics of grasses and onions were investigated. The rational rate of introduction of the studied fertilizers into the technogenic soil is determined. Running (RMF) and direct (DMF) magnetic fields were applied in two ways: with fertilizers added and without fertilizers added. It has been established that the effect of preliminary magnetization of technogenic soil has a significant effect on lawn grass germination and the length of onion feathers, which are more than twice the height when exposed to the RMF, as compared with DMF. The effect of RMF on grass germination was also twice as high for DMF, when fertilizers were added. The DMF magnetization and biohumus helps to increase the grass sprout height by 10–20%. Onion sprouts were higher in two cases: DMF and biohumus; RMF and biochar. The influence of the factor of fertilizer type has a significant effect in 30–40% of cases, whilst at a spread rate of more than 5%, significant chemical activity of biochar negatively affects the germination of both grass and onion.
7
An experimental sedimentation tank for enhancing the settling of solid particles
Yaseen D.A., Abu-Alhail S., Mohammed R.N.

Key words: baffle, clay, secondary settling basin, solid particles, treatment plant, turbid water
For citation: Yaseen D.A., Abu-Alhail S., Mohammed R.N. 2021. An experimental sedimentation tank for enhancing the settling of solid particles. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 63–73. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137097.


Abstract
Sedimentation tanks have a vital role in the overall efficiency of solid particles removal in treatment units. Therefore, an in-depth study these tanks is necessary to ensure high quality of water and increasing the system efficiency. In this work, an experimental rectangular sedimentation tank has been operated with and without a baffle to investigate the system behaviour and effectiveness for the reduction of solid particles. Turbid water was prepared using clay, which was collected from the water treatment plant of Al Maqal Port (Iraq), mixed with clear water in a plastic supply tank. Raw and outflow samples were tested against turbidity after plotting a calibration curve between inflow suspended solids versus their corresponding turbidity values. The key objective was to assess the impact of different flow rates, particle concentrations, heights and positions of the baffle on the system efficiency. Findings showed that the tank performance was enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) with the use of a baffle placed at a distance of 0.15 of tank length with height equal to 0.2 of tank depth. Higher removal efficiency (91%) was recorded at a lower flow rate (0.015 dm3∙s–1) and higher concentration (1250 mg∙dm–3), as the treatment efficiency enhanced by 34% compared with the operation without a baffle. Placing the baffle in the middle of the sedimentation tank produced the worst results. System efficiency for solids removal reduced with increasing baffle height. Further research is required to evaluate the efficiency of an inclined baffle.
8
Prospects for the use of microwave energy in grain crop seeding
Kipriyanov F.A., Savinykh P.A., Isupov A.Yu., Plotnikova Y.A., Medvedeva N.A., Belozerova S.V.

Key words: disinfection, microwave drying, microwave energy, microwave use on plants, pre-sowing treatment
For citation: Kipriyanov F.A., Savinykh P.A., Isupov A.Yu., Plotnikova Y.A., Medvedeva N.A., Belozerova S.V. 2021. Prospects for
the use of microwave energy in grain crop seeding. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 74–78. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137098.


Abstract
This study looks at determining the main trends in the application of microwaves on plants in agricultural production in the processing of grain material, it provides examples of their effectiveness and an overview of the use of microwaves on plants available on the Russian market. Additionally, the research studied the experience and developments of leading scientists in the field of microwave radiation. Analysis of the available sources provided information on the positive effect of microwave radiation in the processing of crops. The use of microwaves on plants during drying destroys pathogens and bacteria, in particular, microwave processing of red lentils reduces grey mould damage by up to 30%. Positive results are also noted in the microwave processing of other crops, providing an increase in germination capacity of up to 7% and yield growth of up to 6%. The microwave plant market in Russia is represented mainly by dryers, and the use of microwaves on plants combining several functions of drying, disinfection, and pre-sowing stimulation.
9
The minimization of impact of oil pollution on soils in the area of railways using glauconite
Chayka O., Petrushka I., Ruda M., Paranyak N., Matskiv O.

Key words: ecological safety, glauconite, oil products, pollution, railway transport, soil contamination
For citation: Chayka O., Petrushka I., Ruda M., Paranyak N., Matskiv O. 2021. The minimization of impact of oil pollution on soils in the area of railways using glauconite. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 79–84. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137099.


Abstract
The analysis of ecological hazards on soil pollution by oil products has been provided in the impact zone of the railway. The results of oil product migration in soils in the area of influence on section Lviv–Khodoriv are given. To study this problem, a method was used to take soil samples according to the standard DSTU ISO 10381-4: 2005. To determine the content of petroleum products used the method MVV No. 081/12-0116-03 Pochvy. Based on the results of the study it was found that contamination with petroleum products in the study area exceeds the norm in the area of influence of the railway at a distance of 5 to –50 m on average 3.5 times. It is proposed to make management decisions to prevent violations of the sanitary protection zone of the railway and the placement of agricultural plots on it. For rehabilitation of contaminated soils, it is advisable to use a natural sorbent – glauconite, which is widespread in the bowels of Ukraine. The adsorption capacity of glauconite relative to diesel fuel has been experimentally established. According to our experiments it is proved the high efficiency of the proposed sorbent, which is 90%. Therefore, in the future it is necessary to periodically monitor the condition of the soil in the area to prevent pollution. This study proves that this practice is necessary.
10
A novel method and device for plastic mulch retriever
Khazimov K.M., Niyazbayev A.K., Shekerbekova Zh.S., Urymbayeva A.A., Mukanova G.A., Bazarbayeva T.A.

Key words: compaction, microclimatic conditions, mulch retriever, plastic mulch, polymer degradation
For citation: Khazimov K.M., Niyazbayev A.K., Shekerbekova Zh.S., Urymbayeva A.A., Mukanova G.A., Bazarbayeva T.A., Nekrashevich V.F., Khazimov M.Zh. 2021. A novel method and device for plastic mulch retriever. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 85–94. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137100.


Abstract
Plastic mulch provides a range of benefits including helping modulate soil temperature, reduce soil erosion, evaporation, fertilizer leaching and weed problems and increasing the quality and yields of the product. But when the crops are harvested, plastic mulch needs to be removed from the ground for disposal. Otherwise, these wastes are mixed with the soil and have a negative impact on yields by reducing the access of nutrients and moisture in the soil. The purpose of the current study is, therefore, to propose a roller for plastic mulch retriever which is applicable when the crops are harvested, and the plastic mulch needs to be removed from the ground for disposal. The winding mechanism of the plastic mulch retriever performs the main function and must have the high-quality performance of the winding operation in the removal technology. Research based on requirements of tensile strength test method and changes of strength characteristics of plastic mulch from various of the standard plastic mulch which was wound in the factory to the diameter of the used plastic mulch during the winding.
11
Use of fly larvae Hermetia illucens in poultry feeding: A review paper
Sverguzova S.V., Shaikhiev I.H., Sapronova Zh.A., Fomina E.V., Makridinа Yu.L.

Key words: feed, Hermetia illucens, insect feed, poultry, protein flour
For citation: Sverguzova S.V., Shaikhiev I.H., Sapronova Zh.A., Fomina E.V., Makridinа Yu.L. 2021. Use of fly larvae Hermetia illucens in poultry feeding: A review paper. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 95–103. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137101.


Abstract
The paper presents the review of scientific publications of world literature on the use of the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) when feeding poultry. Nowadays, the issue of replacing traditional sources of protein when feeding poultry is very urgent, especially in connection with the global food crisis. Insects are the natural food of most birds; thus, the use of fly larvae for feed production has a biological basis. The research results presented in published works show that there are no negative effects on bird health and meat quality when feeding poultry, quail and other birds. In some cases, the
experimental groups of birds gained weight slightly more slowly than the control group. Other reports indicate that birds grew at the same rate as normal birds. The quantity and quality of eggs did not differ significantly, but dietary changes affected the colour of yolks and eggshell. The effect of the addition of live larvae to the diet of young turkeys on the weight characteristics of was studied. Replacing 10% of the daily amount of feed with live Hermetia illucens larvae in the diet of turkeys showed that the daily feed intake and body weight gain of the experimental birds were significantly higher compared
to the control groups, which led to a significantly higher body weight of chicks at the age of five weeks (2.19 kg vs. 2.015 kg, respectively) and a significantly lower feed conversion rate. Most researchers agree that replacing protein in poultry feed with insect flour should be partial, in the 15–30% range. Feeding with larvae that have undergone processing – grinding, chitin removing, heat treatment – is more preferable than using whole larvae, since the chitinous membrane makes larvae difficult to be digested in the digestive tract of birds.
12
Features of the surface water oxygen regime in the Ukrainian Polesie Region
Aristarkhova E.O., Fedoniuk T.P., Romanchuk L.D., Latushynskyi S.V., Kot I.V.

Key words: orrelation analysis, dissolved oxygen, fish, oxygen regime, рН, seasonal fluctuations, surface water, temperature, toxicity
For citation: oxygen regime in the Ukrainian Polesie Region. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 104–110. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137102.


Abstract
The research analyzed seasonal changes of the oxygen regime and related indicators on the example of water objects of the Ukrainian Polesie Region. The region shows different directions of economic use. Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton–Buchanan) and the Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) were used as test objects to investigate survival responses. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in water, pH values and temperatures were determined by standard methods. Based on research results, the main problems were determined pertaining to the oxygen regime of investigated waters, i.e. the increase in temperature and toxicity of the aquatic environment in the summer. A rather dangerous decrease in DO concentration, almost up to the levels of maximum allowable concentration (MAC) (4.10 mg∙dm–3 in group E1 and 6.07 mg∙dm–3 in group E2), was observed in August and it was typical for the reservoirs with a slow water movement. Flowing river waters (group E3) were eliminated due to their better aeration compared to other groups. The correlation analysis based on the presented data revealed a high and average degree of probable correlation between the DO concentration and water temperature, as well as an average degree of correlation with general toxicity determined on sensitive species of D. rerio, and in group E1 on the persistent species C. auratus gibelio as well. The interrelations and equations of the rectilinear regression can be used to predict the oxygen regime of the waters investigated and other surface waters having similar problems.
13
Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality using water quality index The Saguling Reservoir, Indonesia
Marselina M., Sabar A., Fahimah N.

Key words: inverse distance weight, spatial and temporal assessment, surface water, water quality index
For citation: Marselina M., Sabar A., Fahimah N. 2021. Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality using water quality index. The Saguling Reservoir, Indonesia. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 111–120. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137103.


Abstract
Developments in agriculture, industry, and urban life have caused the deterioration of water resources, such as rivers and reservoirs in terms of their quality and quantity. This includes the Saguling Reservoir located in the Citarum Basin, Indonesia. A review of previous studies reveals that the water quality index (WQI) is efficient for the identification of pollution sources, as well as for the understanding of temporal and spatial variations in reservoir water quality. The NSFWQI (The National Sanitation Foundation water quality index) is one of WQI calculation methods. The NSFWQI is commonly used as an indicator of surface water quality. It is based on nitrate, phosphate, turbidity, temperature, faecal coliform, pH, DO, TDS, and BOD. The average NSFWQI has been 48.42 during a dry year, 43.97 during a normal year, and 45.82 during a wet year. The WQI helped to classify water quality in the Saguling Reservoir as “bad”. This study reveals that the strongest and most significant correlation between the parameter concentration and the WQI is the turbidity concentration, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.821 in a dry year, and faecal coli, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.729 in a dry year. Both parameters can be used to calculate the WQI. The research also included a nitrate concentration distribution analysis around the Saguling Reservoir using the Inverse Distance Weighted method.
14
Impact of raw and purified wastewater reuse from the Dar El-Gueddari treatment plant on the soil
Njimat S., Elfettahi F., Griou H., El Brouzi M.Y., Aboulouafa M., Ibn Ahmed S.

Key words: dilutions, electrical conductivity, infiltration, organic matter, pH, treatment plant, wastewater irrigation
For citation: Njimat S., Elfettahi F., Griou H., El Brouzi M.Y., Aboulouafa M., Ibn Ahmed S. 2021. Impact of raw and purified wastewater reuse from the Dar El-Gueddari treatment plant on the soil. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 121–128. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137104.


Abstract
The study has been carried out at two experimental sites. It aims to assess the impact of the reuse of raw wastewater, purified and diluted with conventional water on the physicochemical quality of soils compared to irrigated soils with conventional drilled water and non-irrigated soil. The obtained results show that the electrical conductivity EC and sodium gradually increase in all the plots irrigated with wastewater. Additionally, a slight increase in the pH levels at the first site and a slight decrease in the second site was seen, but at both sites the soils remained alkaline. The infiltration rate of water slide decreases in relation to the amount of irrigation, especially in plots irrigated by raw and treated wastewater. For the same plots, the values of organic matter increased, and the values obtained for the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) became high in the third year and reached 17.0% and 16.7% respectively.
15
Field and modelling study for deficit irrigation strategy on roots volume and water productivity of wheat
Abdelraouf R.E., El-Shawadfy M.A., Dewedar O.M., Hozayn M.

Key words: irrigation, roots volume, SALTMED model, soil moisture, water productivity, wheat
For citation: Abdelraouf R.E., El-Shawadfy M.A., Dewedar O.M., Hozayn M. 2021. Field and modelling study for deficit irrigation strategy on roots volume and water productivity of wheat. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 129–138. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137105.


Abstract
In many regions of the world, including Egypt, water shortages threaten food production. An irrigation deficient strategy in dry areas has been widely investigated as a valuable and sustainable approach to production. In this study, the dry matter and grain yield of wheat was decreased by reducing the amount of irrigation water as well as the volume of the root system. As a result of this, there was an increase the soil moisture stress. This negatively affected the absorption of water and nutrients in the root zone of wheat plants, which ultimately had an effect on the dry matter and grain yield of wheat. The values of dry matter and grain yield of wheat increased with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class. It is possible that this was due to the increase in the genetic characteristic of the root size with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class, as this increase led to the absorption of water and nutrients from a larger volume of root spread. Despite being able to increase the water productivity of wheat by decreasing the amount of added irrigation water, the two highest grain yield values were achieved when adding 100% and 80% of irrigation requirements (IR) needed to irrigate the wheat and no significant differences between the yield values at 100% and 80% of IR were found. Therefore, in accordance with this study, the recommended irrigation for wheat is at 80% IR which will provide  20% IR. When comparing the water productivity of two wheat varieties in study, it becomes clear that ʻSakha 94ʼ was superior to ʻSakha 93ʼ when adding the same amount of irrigation water, and this resulted in increased wheat productivity for ʻSakha 94ʼ. The SALTMED results confirmed good accuracy  (R2: 0.92 to 0.98) in simulating soil moisture, roots volume, water application efficiency, dry matter, and grain yield for two varieties of wheat under deficit irrigation conditions. Whilst using sprinkler irrigation system under sandy soils in Egypt.
16
Response of potato biomass and tuber yield under future climate change scenarios in Egypt
Dewedar O., Plauborg F., El-Shafie A., Marwa A.

Key words: AquaCrop model, biomass, climate change, CMIP5 scenarios, potato, yield
For citation: Dewedar O., Plauborg F., El-Shafie A., Marwa A. 2021. Response of potato biomass and tuber yield under future climate change scenarios in Egypt. Journal of Water and Land Development No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 139–150. DOI 10.24425/jwld. 2021.137106.


Abstract
FAO AquaCrop model ver. 6.1 was calibrated and validated by means of an independent data sets during the harvesting seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, at El Noubaria site in western north of Egypt. To assess the impact of the increase in temperature and CO2 concentration on potato biomass and tuber yield simulations, experiments were carried out with four downscaled and bias-corrected of General Circulation Models (GCMs) data sets based on the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) scenarios under demonstrative Concentration Trails (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, selected for 2021–2040 and 2041–2060. The study showed that the model could satisfactorily simulate potato canopy cover, biomass, harvest and soil water content under various irrigation treatments. The biomass and yield decreased for all GCMs in both future series 2030s and 2050s. Biomass reduction varied between 5.60 and 9.95%, while the reduction of the simulated yield varied between 3.53 and 7.96% for 2030. The lowest values of biomass and yield were achieved by HadGEM2-ES under RCP 8.5 with 27.213 and 20.409 Mg∙ha–1, respectively corresponding to –9.95 and –7.96% reduction. The lowest reductions were 5.60 and 3.53% for biomass and yield, respectively, obtained with MIROC5 under RCP 8.5 for 2030. Reductions in biomass and yield in 2050 were higher than in 2030. The results are showing that higher temperatures shortened the growing period based on calculated growing degree days (GDD). Therefore, it is very important to study changing sowing dates to alleviate the impact of climate change by using field trials, simulation and deep learning models.
17
Phosphoric regime of light chestnut soil and sugar beet yield with long-term use of phosphorous fertilizers
Alimbekova B., Yeleshev R., Bakenova Zh., Shibikeyeva A., Balkozha M.

Key words: ammonia nitrogen, chestnut soil, fertilization, gross phosphorus, mineral nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, mobile phosphorus, organic phosphorus, permanent sugar beet crop
For citation: Alimbekova B., Yeleshev R., Bakenova Zh., Shibikeyeva A., Balkozha M. 2021. Phosphoric regime of light chestnut soil and sugar beet yield with long-term use of phosphorous fertilizers. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 151–155. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137107.


Abstract
This study presents the results of research on the effect of long-term use of phosphorus fertilizers on permanent sugar beet crops for more than 50 years and on the transformation of phosphate forms on light chestnut soil and its yield. Our work aims to establish the main factors of quantitative and qualitative changes in various phosphates in light chestnut soil. Despite the large amount of practical material, the influence duration of phosphorus fertilizer application has not been sufficiently studied on the irrigated soils of Kazakhstan. It should be noted that the current study was carried out in long-term stationary experimental sites for the production of sugar beet with permanent sowing. The introduction of phosphate fertilizers primarily on the permanent crops of sugar beets in the same norms contributes to a more significant increase in gross phosphorus reserves. The soil content of gross phosphorus for 58 years on the control and nitrogen-potassium variants show practically no changes. Furthermore, when phosphorus fertilizers are applied on the variant with the annual application of a single norm of phosphorus and its amount for 58 years (4400 kg∙ha–1 of application doses) its content increased by 2660 mg∙kg–1, and with the introduction of its one and a half norms (6600 kg of application doses) by 2860 mg∙kg–1 of soil.
18
Development of biogas and biorafinery systems in Polish rural communities
Wałowski G.

Key words: agricultural biogas, biorafination, fermentation process, pig slurry
For citation: Wałowski G. 2021. Development of biogas and biorafinery systems in Polish rural communities. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 156–168. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137108.


Abstract
The article reviews selected systems and technological variants of biogas production. Biogas installations and methods of biogas production were characterized in terms of control and measurement. The required technical and technological criteria for biogas production and treatment were indicated. The conditions of biorefining in the context of the generation of new products were analysed. Based on the amount of manure produced in pig production, the potential of biogas production in Poland was indicated based on the visualization of the biogas production potential by poviats in Poland. The substrate in the form of slurry, manure and other agricultural waste for the production of agricultural biogas in Poland was analysed quantitatively. The economic aspects in the agricultural biogas plant sector were revealed, indicating the operation of the economies of scale for this industry sector. An example of a pilot biogas production for anaerobic digestion using pig slurry is presented. The paper presents preliminary results of experimental studies on the course of changes in the biogas volume flow for the average daily production of agricultural biogas and the qualitative composition of agricultural biogas produced from pig slurry. The results of the measurements show a clear influence of the hydrodynamic mixing system of the substrate for the evaluation of the biogas flow through the adhesive bed in the context of agricultural biogas production in the range (1–14) m3 d–1.
19
Grape production assessment using surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods
Kadbhane S.J., Manekar V.L.

Key words: crop water requirement, irrigation with plastic bottles, organic mulch, plastic mulch, stone column, sustainable irrigation, water productivity
For citation: Kadbhane S.J., Manekar V.L. 2021. Grape production assessment using surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 169–178. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137109.


Abstract
The study involved experimental work implemented from April 2014 until March 2017. Its purpose was to observe grape production quality parameters, such as yield, water productivity, berry size and bio-mass. Different irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation (DI), drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DIPM), drip irrigation with organic mulching (DIOM), subsurface irrigation with stone column (SISC), subsurface irrigation with mud pot (SIMP), and subsurface irrigation with plastic bottles (SIPB) have been used during the experimental work. The crop has been irrigated following the CROPWAT-8.0 model developed by the FAO. Climate parameters are obtained from the automatic weather station located near the experimental field. Based on experimental results and analyses, it has been observed that the drip irrigation with the plastic mulching method is the best for irrigation in terms of the grape yield comparing with all other methods due to its highest productivity of 35–40%. Subsurface irrigation with the plastic bottle method is found to be suitable as it gives 20% higher yield than the traditional drip irrigation method. The SIPB method shows the cost-benefit ratio of 112.3, whereas the DIPM method had the ratio of 36.6. Based on the cost-benefit analysis, it is concluded that the SIPB method is economically more viable as compared with all other methods. Hence, based on the findings, it is recommended to use drip irrigation with a plastic mulching and drip irrigation with a plastic bottle as the best options to achieve grape productivity while using minimum water.
20
Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of Lake Dayet Erroumi – Khemisset, Morocco
El Qryefy M., Ouardi J., Najy M., Belghyti D., El Kharrim K.

Key words: Dayet Erroumi, hydrochemical characteristics, Morocco, salinity, water quality
For citation: El Qryefy M., Ouardi J., Najy M., Belghyti D., El Kharrim K. 2021. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of Lake Dayet Erroumi – Khemisset, Morocco. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 179–187. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137110.


Abstract
The objective of this paper is to study the hydrochemical characteristics of Lake Dayet Erroumi (Khemisset, Morocco). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in April, July and November 2019. The temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured in situ using Hanna Instruments HI 98280. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride were analysed by the volumetric method. The atomic absorption technique was used to determine sodium, potassium, nitrate and sulphate. The physico-chemical analysis of the water indicates that the pH is basic. The nitrate and sulphate concentrations show that the water is of good quality according to Moroccan surface water guidelines. Furthermore, the hydrochemical facies of water is of the sodium-chloride type according to the Piper diagram. The value of the electrical conductivity indicates that the lake water has high salinity. The high mineralization of water is explained by the leaching from evaporitic rocks in the region. The principal component analysis shows that the spatial and temporal variation in salinity constitutes the major phenomenon of the hydrochemical characteristics of this lake. Salinity varies inversely with the pH value. The salinity of the water is controlled by abiotic factors (rain and evaporation). However, other parameters (pH, nitrate, carbonate and bicarbonate) depend on biotic factors. Evaporation plays a crucial role in the seasonal variation of the water chemical composition. During wet seasons, the mineralization of water decreases due to dilution by rainwater and the water level of the lake rises (high water period). During dry seasons, lake water evaporates and consequently the mineralization of the water increases, which explains the increase in salinity during the low water period.
21
The mechanism of phosphate bacteria in increasing the solubility of phosphorus in Indonesian Andisols
Tamad, Maas A., Hanudin E., Widada J.

Key words: adsorption, Andisols, mineralization, phosphate bacteria, solubilisation
For citation: Tamad, Maas A., Hanudin E., Widada J. 2021. The mechanism of phosphate bacteria in increasing the solubility of phosphorus in Indonesian Andisols. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 188–194. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137111.


Abstract
The purpose of this research was to determine: 1) phosphate bacteria (PB) mechanisms responsible for enhancing the soil’s soluble phosphorus (P), using the processes of inorganic P solubilisation, organic P mineralization, and blocking of soil colloidal adsorption site, and 2) to investigate the factors contributing to this increase. Phosphate bacteria (PB) was inoculated into sterile Andisols in three separate compositions, termed 1 kg P∙kg–1 (2.82 g phosphate rock, 0.5 g Ca3(PO4)2, 0.4 g Al3(PO4)2, or 0.4 g Fe3(PO4)2), organic P (0.5 cm3 para-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) or 0.5 g Na-phytate), and 1 kg P (KH2PO4)∙kg–1, in order to analyse inorganic P solubilisation, organic P mineralization, and evaluate blocking soil colloidal site for adsorption P, respectively. Furthermore, spectrophotometry technique was applied to determine the amount of dissolved P. The PB showed an improvement in inorganic P solubilisation from 147.66 to 194.61 mg P∙kg–1, and also in organic P from 63.6 to 91.7 mg P∙kg–1, compared to control, (31.06 mg P∙kg–1) and (23.7 mg P∙kg–1), respectively. Meanwhile, the micro-organisms were known to decrease P adsorption by 13.43%, beyond the restraint set at 85.34%. Therefore, increased soluble P in Andisols is possibly expressed, using the equation as follows: soluble P (mg P∙kg–1) = 1201.96 + 1.18 inorganic P solubilisation (mg P∙kg–1) + 1.09 organic P mineralization (mg P∙kg–1) – 0.92 adsorption P (mg P∙kg–1) (R2 = 0.99).
22
Estimation and management of the future evolution of groundwater water demand in the Taoura region, North-East Algeria
Rouaibia F., Sayad L., Attoui B.

Key words: Algeria, annual average precipitation, groundwater, socioeconomic development, sustainable resource management, Taoura, WEAP model
For citation: Rouaibia F., Sayad L., Attoui B. 2021. Estimation and management of the future evolution of groundwater water demand in the Taoura region, North-East Algeria. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 195–203. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137112.


Abstract
Evaluating the capacity to meet the need of water is crucial in order to fulfil expectations of managers, particularly in the Mediterranean area. The region is risk in terms of resources available as well as a steadily increasing in demand for water. The frontier drain of the city of Souk Ahras is located at the extreme Northeast of Algeria, on the Algerian-Tunisian borders, the study region includes eight city, which are Taoura, Drea, Zaârouria, Merahna, Ouillen, SidiFredj, Heddada and Khedara, these are relatively poor in surface water, but groundwater has always been the main water resource. The region’s population is around 93,000 inhabitants, 45% of them living in rural areas. Annual average precipitation is approximately 470 mm∙y–1, but it is distributed unequally in space and time. The average supply water varies from one zone to another and the coverage of demand by groundwater in the region remains low and does not meet all needs. Faced with the regions socioeconomic growth and development, this situation is expected to worsen in the future.
In this context, the WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system) model was applied to simulate the water balance and assess strategies for the sustainable management of water resources and makes it possible to explore different scenarios, in order to choose the desired scenario to ensure the sustainable development of the sub-basin of the border until 2050. The availability of drinking water permanently in rural areas is a factor in the stability of a population and a means of combating the rural migration and the congestion of urban centres.
23
Community enhancement of the environmental quality of riverbank settlements: A case study of Tridi Kampong, Indonesia
Wahyuni I.A.M., Weni I M., Hariyanto T., Sedyowati L.

Key words: environmental risk management, informal settlement, social exchange, socio-economic benefits, tourism destination
For citation: Wahyuni I.A.M., Weni I M., Hariyanto T., Sedyowati L. 2021. Community enhancement of the environmental quality of riverbank settlements: A case study of Tridi Kampong, Indonesia. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 204–212. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137113.


Abstract
Resettlement programmes in riverbank areas remain an alternative solution to overcoming the problems of urban flooding, the addressing of which can also lead to reducing slums. Such programmes have many weaknesses, but even so, several countries continue to implement them. This paper will elaborate: 1) an understanding that reductions in flood risk and enhancements to environmental quality along riverbanks can be realised, without the need for resettlement, as a result of cooperation between local communities, governments and businesses; 2) the socio-economic benefits of improving the riverbank environment in Tridi Kampong, Malang City, Indonesia. This study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. The results of quantitative analysis and of interviews and direct observation indicate that collective action by the community has the greatest influence on the construction of that community’s commitment to improving the environment. Environmental improvements have resulted in significant socio-economic benefits by making the kampong a domestic and international tourism destination and drawing increased numbers of visitors to the region.
24
The influence of the mixture of vermicompost and sulphur-perlite-containing waste on the yield and the quality of crops
Baikhamurova M.O., Sainova G.A., Akbasova A.D., Anarbekova G.D., Ozler M.A.

Key words: crops quality, root vegetables, sierozem soil, soil fertility, substrate, sulphur perlite-containing waste, vermicompost, yielding
For citation: Baikhamurova M.O., Sainova G.A., Akbasova A.D., Anarbekova G.D., Ozler M.A. 2021. The influence of the mixture of vermicompost and sulphur-perlite-containing waste on the yield and the quality of crops. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 213–218. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137114.


Abstract
Any type of material that increases soil yield, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to strengthen the soil and increase its fertility is called fertilizer. The current study examines the production of a new effective fertilizer. Results presented involve effects of new bioorganic-mineral compositions obtained from the combination of vermicompost and sulphur-containing waste from sulphuric acid production on the yield and quality of tubers (beets, carrots). An increase in the yield of tubers has been found to be 1.13–1.25 times when the bioorganic-mineral composition (~20 Mg∙ha–1) is introduced into the sierozem (serozem) soil. The best results are obtained with mass ratios in the range 30–45 and 55–70 for vermicompost and sulphurperlite-containing waste, respectively. The effectiveness of the mixture of vermicompost and sulphur-containing waste is explained by the increased synergistic interaction of these components. The proposed composition has high structure-forming, water-retaining, nutritional and biologically active properties.
25
Assessing domestic factors determining water consumption in a semi-arid area (Sedrata City) using artificial neural networks and principal component analysis
Zeroual M., Hani A., Boustila A.

Key words: artificial neural networks, domestic water use determinants, household water consumption, principal component analysis, semi-arid area
For citation: Zeroual M., Hani A., Boustila A. 2021. Assessing domestic factors determining water consumption in a semi-arid area (Sedrata City) using artificial neural networks and principal component analysis. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 219–228. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137115.


Abstract
The growing demand for fresh water and its scarcity are the major problems encountered in semi-arid cities. Two different techniques have been used to assess the main determinants of domestic water in the Sedrata City, North-East Algeria: principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). To create the ANNs models based on the PCA, twelve explanatory variables are initially investigated, of which nine are socio-economic parameters and three physical characteristics of building units. Two optimum ANNs models have been selected where correlation coefficients equal to 0.99 in training, testing and validation phases. In addition, results demonstrate that the combination of socio-economic parameters with physical characteristics of building units enhances the assessment of household water consumption.
26
Management of expenses for fertilizers and chemical plant protection products in the accounting and control system of agrarian formations
Degaltseva Z.V., Govdya V.V., Velichko K.A.

Key words: accounting and control system, agrarian formation, cost of fertilizers, efficiency information technology, management
For citation: Degaltseva Z.V., Govdya V.V., Velichko K.A. 2021. Management of expenses for fertilizers and chemical plant protection products in the accounting and control system of agrarian formations. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 229–234. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137116.


Abstract
A wide variety of soil and climatic conditions requires extensive study of the characteristics of the use of fertilizers and chemical plant protection products, which sometimes negatively affects the environment. Therefore, there is a need not only to know the ways and amount of application of fertilizers and chemical protectors but also to have a clear idea of the processes occurring in the soil, plants, ecology of the production environment and the rural population. This knowledge will allow us to carefully approach the practical issues of chemicalizing the crop industry and prevent possible negative consequences. To study the integrated interdisciplinary object of management accounting related to the assessment of the reproduction of agricultural land fertility, the functions and complex interaction of IT management, and analysis of specific situations of the impact of costs on fertilizers and chemical plant protection products on the gross crop production in the Kuban economic entities were applied. The study found that modern science has formulated the main theoretical aspects of the economic and environmental efficiency of the use of mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection products in agriculture. Noting the significant achievements of scientists and practitioners in this field of agricultural development, we believe that the use of digital technologies for assessing the quality of soil fertility, methods and methods of using chemical agents can qualitatively improve information on the costs of their use, and determine the most rational and environmentally friendly areas. The studied experience in the application of methods indicates a fairly high accuracy in assessing the quality of soil fertility. Moreover, the results make it possible to change the associated types of managerial work, such as the planning of the procurement of fertilizers and plant protection products, precisely determine their types, and coordinate the place and time of their use.
27
Characterization of Algerian Sahara groundwater for irrigation and water supply: Adrar region study case
Bendida A., Kendouci M.A., Tidjani A. E.-B.

Key words: Adrar area, Algerian Sahara, drinking water, groundwater, hydrochemical, irrigation water, Piper diagram
For citation: Bendida A., Kendouci M.A., Tidjani A. E.-B. 2021. Characterization of Algerian Sahara groundwater for irrigation and water supply: Adrar region study case. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 235–243. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137117.


Abstract
Groundwater hydrochemistry of Algerian Sahara (Southwest, Algeria) was used to assess groundwater quality to determine its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. A total of 26 groundwater samples were analysed for 14 parameters. Standards laboratory methods were used to determine physicochemical groundwater properties. This study shows that these pH, electric conductivity, total hardness, bicarbonate, and phosphate were within WHO limits. The concentration of magnesium ranging from 30.49 to 120 mg∙dm–3 with an average value of 67.21 mg∙dm–3. 38.56% of the water points analysed have a concentration lower than the value set by the WHO at 75.00 mg∙dm–3. It also showed that 70% of the points studied have potassium concentrations that exceed World Health Organization standards. Groundwater of Algerian Sahara is low in nitrogen (NO3–) and the higher concentration may result in various health risks. The result for this study showed that the water was to be found suitable for drinking purposes except for few samples. Piper diagram indicates that groundwater in Adrar belongs to chlorinated-sulphated, sodium and magnesium facies. The groundwater samples of Adrar present high salinity and low alkalinity fall into the field of C3S1 and C3S2. Based on the RSC values, all samples had values less than 1.25 and were good for irrigation.
28
Flow characteristics after installation of floating bridge in open channel
Ibrahim M.M., Eltoukhy M.A.R., Ghanim A.D.

Key words: floating bridges, flow characteristics, flume, head loss, velocity
For citation: Ibrahim M.M., Eltoukhy M.A.R., Ghanim A.D. 2021. Flow characteristics after installation of floating bridge in open channel. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 244–251. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137118.


Abstract
A pontoon bridge, also known as a floating bridge, can be used as for pedestrian and vehicle traffic. The buoyancy of the floating bridge limits the maximum load it can carry. This research included experimental runs to study variations of open channel flow characteristics upstream and downstream a floating bridge. Eighty one runs have been carried out using a flume in a hydraulic laboratory. The experimental run program is classified into two main categories; the first investigates the velocity ratios (vds/vus) downstream and upstream the floating bridge. The second category is concerned with the energy head losses (hL) due to the presence of a floating bridge. The experimental runs are carried out using three pontoon lengths, three flow depths, six submerged depths, and three discharges. The results are analysed and graphically presented to help predict hydraulic parameters. The outcomes have shown that the floating bridge upstream, Froude number and submergence of the pontoon are the dominant parameters that affect the studied flow characteristics.
29
Kinetic study of oil-containing wastewater treatment with the use of natural sorbents
Tleuova S.T., Userbayeva B.A., Tleuov A.S., Yeskendirova M.M., Yakubova R.R., Kerimbayeva K.Z.

Key words: filtration, heavy metal ions, industrial wastewater, kinetics, oil-containing wastewater, sorption materials
For citation: Tleuova S.T., Userbayeva B.A., Tleuov A.S., Yeskendirova M.M., Yakubova R.R., Kerimbayeva K.Z. 2021. Kinetic study of oil-containing wastewater treatment with the use of natural sorbents. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 252–258. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137119.


Abstract
The study has investigated the technical characteristics of a number of sorption materials (natural mineral) and the possibility of their use for the purification of surface and wastewater from oil and oil products. At the first step, regularities of the process of purification of oily waters have been established taking into account the processes of filtration and sorption. After that, the sorption capacity of the sorbents has been estimated, and the factors influencing it analysed. As a final step, the optimal conditions for the sorption process have been selected depending on the conditions and nature of purification. Results indicated that the maximum purification degree has been reached at the concentration of 500 mg∙dm–3 and temperature of 20°С.
30
Floodway design affected by land use changes in an urbanized area
Suharyanto A., Devia Y.P., Wijatmiko I.

Key words: channel dimensions, channel normalization, floodway, land cover changes, land use, runoff coefficient
For citation: Suharyanto A., Devia Y.P., Wijatmiko I. 2021. Floodway design affected by land use changes in an urbanized area. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 259–266. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137120.


Abstract
A flood occurs for many reasons, such as excessive rainfall, runoff coefficient, or an insufficient river channel capacity. The discharge flowing through the floodway depends on the maximum main river dimension that can be normalized. LU/LC changes are affected by runoff discharge, and runoff discharge is affected by the floodway design. The study discusses the effect of land use (LU) or land cover (LC) changes and the design of floodway channel dimensions in the Kali Kemuning watershed, East Java Province, Indonesia. The Nakayasu synthetic unit hydrograph has been used to analyse the runoff discharge, and the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System software analysed the hydraulic properties of river and floodway channels. Results show that the floodway channel design is determined by LU/LC conditions, and the river channel is normalized toward its maximum dimensions. Normalized channel depths and widths vary from 4 to 7 m and 16 to 46 m, respectively. The floodway channel is rectangular, with a bottom width of 10 m and depth of 4.5 m. With the runoff coefficient equal to 0.75, these normalized channel and floodway dimensions are suitable for the flood up to the 100-year return period runoff discharge.
31
Hydraulic gradient prediction for solid-water mixture flow through horizontal pipelines of different diameters and roughness and solids concentrations
Osra F.A.

Key words: deposit limit velocity, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic losses, slurry flow, solid concentrations, suspended solids, wastewater
For citation: Osra F.A. 2021. Hydraulic gradient prediction for solid-water mixture flow through horizontal pipelines of different diameters and roughness and solids concentrations. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 267–272. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137686.


Abstract
In wastewater treatment plants, large pumps are often used to accommodate unknown hydraulic properties of solid-water mixture flow. The use of large pumps translates into higher purchasing and operating costs. Wastewater mixture is pumped with solids of different types and concentrations through pipelines. The design of these ducts is mainly based on the hydraulic laws of solid-water mixture which is represented by a corrected friction coefficient corresponding to the concentration of solids in water. This paper experimentally studies hydraulic properties of solid-water mixtures in pipelines by the varying Froude number (Fr), which represents the velocity mixture, solid concentration, pipeline diameter and pipeline material type-roughness coefficient. The experiments have been conducted in the wastewater treatment plant where six solid concentrations can be found ranging from 2 to 12% by weight. The pipe diameter ranges between 100 to 300 mm. It has been found that both the friction coefficient and the hydraulic gradient ameliorate with the increase of the pipeline roughness and the solids concentration in the water mixture, whereas the Fr drop with the diameter of the pipeline. The results are translated into curves and equations to predict the corrected pipeline friction coefficient and the hydraulic gradient of the solid-water mixture flow through horizontal pipelines at various solids concentrations, roughness and diameters.
32
Geospatial potential and environmental changes: Case study of complex nature of the Altai Geopark
Kocheeva N.A., Iurkova N.A., Sukhova M.G., Redkin A.G., Zhuravleva O.V.

Key words: Altai, environmental changes, geological objects, geopark, geotourism, rural development
For citation: Kocheeva N.A., Iurkova N.A., Sukhova M.G., Redkin A.G., Zhuravleva O.V. 2021. Geospatial potential and environmental changes: Case study of complex nature of the Altai Geopark. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 273–281. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137687.


Abstract
The geopark Altai has a set of unique geological, geographical, and archaeological objects. Its basis is made by geological space with a specific relief that plays an important role, and on certain sites, it takes the first place in comparison with other types of objects. The peculiar feature of the geopark Altai is that in its territory there is a landscape connection among archaeological, geological, and geographical objects, which at certain sites is penetrated by mental and cultural fluids causing a deep interest of tourists in this territory. In this regard, the authors consider the relief as an object of cognitive, educational, and practical activities of the geopark Altai. Therefore, the following tasks were set up: to find a site for the realization of several types of activities by the geopark and to develop a theoretical scientific and a popular science base for their implementation. As a result of the work done, the authors allocated the site within the boundaries of the geopark Altai where modern dynamics of the relief are characterized by the maximum speed. On this site, it is possible to recreate the processes that created the relief in the geological past and to study these processes now. The specifics of weather and climatic conditions in this region made its relief very important for economic activity of the population inhabiting this territory. Therefore, as of today, the study of the condition of certain surface sites and forecasting the development of relief-forming processes is an important part of any activity on the described territory. The long-term geological, ecological, geographical, and archaeological research conducted by the authors on the territory of the Altai Republic served as materials for this study. The geological materials were collected by the methods adopted in this field of research (field survey of structures and rocks, cartographic methods, analysis of general geological data, and others). The ecological and geographical results were obtained using geochemical, hydrochemical, analytical, and others.
Dział Wydawnictw ITP/Editorial Office
Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy
Falenty, al. Hrabska 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Polska
tel. +48 22 243 54 54, fax +48 22 735 75 06
http://www.itp.edu.pl/wydawnictwo
e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl;
e-mail: wydawnictwo@itp.edu.pl
ITP-PIB Editorial Office
Institute of Technology and Life Sciences
National Research Institute
Falenty, 3 Hrabska Avenue, Raszyn 05-090, Poland
 tel. +48 22 243 52 32 or +48 22 243 54 56
e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl
Back to content